16 types of carpentry joints and how to use them
Never thought of joining two or more pieces of wood together? Well, if you're a carpenter or carpenter, you definitely have. To join one or two pieces of wood together, we use carpentry joints.
Gaskets or joinery for woodworking, both traditional and non-traditional, have been around for centuries, thousands of years ago, and until today we use them.
This knowledge of the different types of joints allows us to build wooden structures such as house frames, furniture and furniture, sometimes without using a single fastener such as nails or screws.
Now, speaking of woodworking joints, here is a list of some of the most popular and important, from the simplest to the most complex, that you can use on your projects.
Summary 1 . Butt Joint
A butt joint is the simplest joinery joinery you can make. But it is also the weakest. It is simply a matter of joining two pieces of wood by joining the ends together.
With this joint, the end grain of one piece of wood runs directly to the edge grain of another piece of wood. The two are joined together using glue or fasteners such as nails.
This joint is so weak that you can easily separate a glued joint with your hands. Even when held together with fasteners such as nails, you can still separate a butt joint if you apply enough force with your hands.
The butt joint is not a joint you want to use a lot, especially when building furniture or furniture that requires a lot of tensile strength.
Related: 40 woodworking tools every carpenter should have
2. Oblique joint
Oblique joint is quite similar to a joint end to end. However, the ends of the two pieces of wood are usually beveled at a 45 degree angle. Effectively masks terminal grains.
This is why it is commonly used by carpenters when installing moldings, baseboards and window finishes in homes. The ends of these moldings and trims come together best with a miter joint and hide the end grain of the board by hiding where the moldings were cut.
Related: 7 Best Jigs to Speed Up Your Woodworking Projects 3. NutJoint
A nut joint is a very common type of joint used in furniture making and cabinetwork. It is also called a watertight seal or a housing seal.
With this joint, a slit is cut along the front grain of one piece of wood, exactly the size of the end grain of the other piece to be joined.
The grain end of the second piece of wood inserts directly into the slot or nut to complete the joint.
4. Lap Joint
Lap Joint for Woodworking
A lap joint is used not only for joining wood, but also for joining wood. other materials such as plastic and metal. When you join two pieces of wood using a lap joint, the two woods overlap to form a very strong joint.
There are 2 main types of lap joints. A full swivel joint and a half-turn joint. In a full lap joint, the two pieces of wood or materials are joined together without removing material from either piece of wood.
In a half-lap joint, material is removed from both pieces of wood. , so that the resulting lap joint has the thickness of the thicker member of the two pieces of wood.
Most lap joints have members of the same thickness, so half the thickness of each piece of wood is removed to form the joint.
When two pieces of wood are joined together with a lap joint, the resulting joint is one of the strongest carpentry joints you can make, even stronger than tenon joints and mortise because the resulting joint has enormous capacity. to resist shear forces.
5. Flange Joint
You can think of a flange joint as a tenon and mortise with the mortise and tenon cut the full width of the tenon. Indeed, it can be said that the two are very similar.
What distinguishes the flange joint from the mortise and tenon is the cutout of the mortise and tenon elements across the width of the tenon in the flange joint.
The corner flange is the most common of the flanges and is created in the corners of the two respective elements.
The angular flange is generally used when joining rails with their vertical members as legs of furniture such as chairs or tables.
Another variation of the flanged joint is the T-shaped flanged joint which, instead of joining the corners of the two members, joins the corner of one member with the center of the other member to form a T. Just like the corner flange, the T-flange also forms a very strong joint for woodworking.
This is a very common gasket that you will find in factory made furniture as it is very easy to make by hand. help of production line machinery. The joint gusset is simply a butt joint that has been reinforced with anchors. Dowel or dowel is a cylindrical rod or pin usually made of wood, plastic or metal. Speaking of dowels, there is a dowel rod and a dowel pin. The centering rod is a long cylindrical rod made of wood, plastic or metal which is then cut into shorter lengths to form the centering pins used to make the centering joints.
Unlike butt joints, stud joints are structurally sound and look good when constructed properly. To ensure accurate dowel alignment when making a joinery joint with dowels, woodworkers use a special measuring tool called a dowel center.
The dowel center is used to measure or mark the position of the holes for the dowels. to insert.
7. Mortise and tenon joint
Mortise and tenon joint
The mortise and tenon joint is one of the oldest woodworking joints known to man.
Records show that the Egyptians also used it in ancient Egypt to make wooden molds for bricks.
It is used to join two pieces of materials like wood where one of the pieces to be joined contains the mortise or rectangular hole, and the other contains the tenon or tongue that fits perpendicularly and into the hole to form the seal.
The joint formed as a result of this combination is very strong. In fact, the mortise and tenon joint is one of the strongest joints you can use for your woodworking projects.
The only downside is that it is a bit difficult to perform.
You have to make a square or rectangular hole in a piece of wood, then you have to cut the tenon precisely to fit it into the mortise.
Cut the tenon too small and you have damaged the joint or worse your materials.
8. Box joint
Box joint is a woodworking joint generally used to join the corners of boxes or box-shaped woodwork, which explains why it is called box gasket.
Fabrication consists of cutting a series of interlocking complementary square profiles in the end grain of the two pieces of wood to be joined at right angles.
Glue is applied to the contact areas and the two pieces are secured together to form the joint. The resulting joint is quite strong due to the large glue surface of the joint.
9. Dovetail joint
This is the popular dovetail joint. If I didn't know anything about the dovetail joint before, I would think the joint is shaped like a dovetail.
Well, let's see. Here is the photo of the seal below. Doesn't it have the shape of a dove's tail? I think so.
Enough with the tail.
This is why the dovetail joint is a very important joint for woodworking. It has a very high tensile strength. Once locked in place, it has high pull-out resistance.
If glue is added before locking the joint, forget it. It is practically impossible to disassemble it.
| cabinets, drawers and other furniture where joint strength is very important.
There are several types of dovetail joints that you can use for your woodworking applications. These include through dovetail, semi-blind dovetail, double lap covert dovetail, covert oblique dovetail, and sliding dovetail. the angle of inclination is determined by the type of wood used.
If it is hard wood, the tilt angle is 1:8, while if it is soft wood, the tilt angle is 1:6.
10. Male and female joint
Male and female joint for woodworking
Male and female joint
Male and female joint is a unique joint for woodworking that allows to joining two separate and mostly identical wooden elements together from edge to edge.
This joint is mainly used for joining floorboards, panels, parquet and other similar applications.
In a tongue and groove joint, one piece of wood has a groove (groove) cut along one edge while the other piece of wood has a deep ridge or tongue cut on the edge opposite which fits perfectly in the groove.
The tongue is cut so that it protrudes less than the depth of the groove and glue is not used when making the joint so that it can contract and expand freely without damaging the elements.
11 . Lap Joint
A cross lap joint is one of the easiest joints to make. It is exactly like a lap joint already described above, but the pieces of wood or elements of the cross lap joint intersect at or near the center to form the cross lap joint.
The material is taken. each of the elements at the point of intersection so that the combined lap joint is the thickness of the joint thickness element.
12. Joining joint
Joining joint for woodworking
Sometimes in woodworking, it is necessary to join the pieces of wood between the end grain and the end grain. For example, when you need long wooden beams and between lengths of wood, there is not one as long as the beam you need. What are you doing? Join two or more pieces of wood together end to end to form a longer beam.
One of the best joinery gaskets to use in this case is the joint gasket. It allows you to join lengths of wood together from end to end. The resulting joint is structurally sound and therefore very useful where structural strength is required, such as in the house beam example above. Half-overlap joint, table joint, tapered lap joint and tapered comb joint.
When you need to create long pieces of solid board such as baseboards, moldings and trim from shorter ones, the joint finger-joint is a joinery joint that you can use.
It is obtained by cutting a series of complementary interlocking profiles in the pieces of wood which are then firmly glued together to form the joint.
It is called a finger joint because when the completed joint is formed, the section looks like the interlocking of fingers between two hands. It is also known as finger knuckle due to its appearance.
The finger joint is sometimes confused with a box joint, but it is not a box joint.
Even if I admit it, it looks like that.
14. Birdsmouth Mating
If you roof houses for a living, you should be familiar with the Birdsmouth Mating. It is a joint that is used to connect a roof beam to the top plate of a load-bearing wall.
The bird's mouth joint is essentially a recess (the shape of a bird's mouth) cut into the beam. which consists of a seat cut that sits above the top plate of the bearing wall and a heel cut with a face parallel to the wall that supports the joist.
| breakage of wood and joints.
15. Biscuit Joint
A biscuit joint is made using a tool called a biscuit to cut oval-shaped slits in the edges of the elements wooden to assemble. After that, the glue is applied to oval wooden or plastic discs called biscuits, which are then inserted into the slots and the two wooden elements are fixed together to solidify the glue. The biscuit inside the crack expands further as the glue sets due to the moisture in the glue to further solidify the bond.
Today, slats have many applications in woodworking. They are mainly used to join sheet products such as plywood, medium density fiberboard and particleboard.
In addition to joining sheet products and particleboard, you can also join solid wood parts edge to edge with a biscuit joint. The joint produced is very strong and can also be used in place of a mortise and tenon joint.
The primary use of biscuit joint or used biscuits is to align pieces of wood from edge to edge. edge to create panels wider than wood.
When assembling these planks from edge to edge, it is important to cut the slots on the same side as the planks, so that the planks are perfectly square during assembly.
To learn more about cookie joiners, you can read this article on cookie joiners.
16. Pocket hole joint
Pocket hole drilling
Pocket hole joints
A pocket hole joint or pocket hole joinery is one of the most common woodworking tools that many carpenters are turning to these days due to the many benefits that comes with it.
This involves drilling angled pocket holes (usually at 15 degrees) in one of the pieces of wood to be joined, then using a self-tapping screw to join it to the second piece of wood.